Pashto is the South-Central Asian language of the Pashtuns. It is an Eastern Iranian language, belonging to the Indo-European family. It is one of the two official languages of Afghanistan, and it is the second-largest regional language of Pakistan, mainly spoken in the west and northwest of the country. There are three main varieties of Pashto: Northern Pashto, spoken mainly in Pakistan; Southern Pashto, spoken mainly in Afghanistan; and Central Pashto, spoken mainly in Pakistan.

Pashto was made the national language of Afghanistan by royal decree in 1936. Since then, the Pashto spelling system has been revised to some extent. Today both Dari and Pashto are official languages there. Pashto first appeared in writing during the 16th century in the form of an account of Shekh Mali’s conquest of Swat. It is written with a version of the Arabic script. There are two standard written forms: one based on the dialect of Kandahar, the other on the dialect of Peshawar.

According to 19th-century linguist James Darmestete Pashto is “descended from Avestan”. Scholars such as Abdul Hai Habibi and others believe that the earliest modern Pashto work dates back to Amir Kror Suri of Ghor in the eighth century and that they used the writings found in Pata Khazana. From the 16th century, Pashto poetry became very popular among the Pashtuns. Some of those who wrote poetry in Pashto are Pir Roshan, Khushal Khan Khattak, Rahman Baba, Nazo Tokhi, and Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the modern state of Afghanistan or the Durrani Empire. In modern times, noticing the incursion of Persian and Persianised-Arabic vocabulary, there is a strong desire to purify Pashto by restoring its old vocabulary. Pashto-speakers have long had a tradition of oral literature, including proverbs, stories, and poems. Written Pashto literature saw a rise in development in the 17th century mostly due to poets like Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), who, along with Rahman Baba (1650–1715), is widely regarded as among the greatest Pashto poets.


ProMosaik Trans offers translations from and into Pashto in the following fields:


  • Law and Contract Law
  • Patents
  • Marketing and Advertising
  • Technology
  • Science
  • Literature
  • Cultural Sciences


Pashto Proverb: “علم د ښه سړي نه ډېر ښه او د بد سړي نه ډېر بد جوړوي” – Learning makes a good man better, and an ill man worse.


ProMosaik Trans Istanbul offers the following language combinations from and into Pashto:


English – Pashto


German – Pashto


French – Pashto


Italian – Pashto


Spanish — Pashto




ProMosaik Trans also offers editing, interpreting, proofreading, and transcription services in Pashto.



With ProMosaik interlanguage you can also study Pashto with us online!


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