English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid-5th to 7th centuries AD by Germanic invaders and settlers. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language, but most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders, mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from “Englaland” and their language was called “Englisc” – from which the words “England” and “English” are derived.

The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English (450-1100 AD). Old English did not sound or look like English today, nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots.

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy, invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors, the Normans, brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English (1100-1500).

From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. This is considered to be the Early Modern English phase (1500-1800).

Present day English or Late Modern English (1800 – Present) differentiates itself from Early Modern English due to its much bigger vocabulary, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth’s surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries.

As of 2016, 400 million people speak English as their first language, and 1.1 billion speak it as a secondary language. English is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin and Spanish. However, when combining native and non-native speakers it may, depending on the estimate used, be the most commonly spoken language in the world. English has ceased to be an “English language” in the sense of belonging only to people who are ethnically English. Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication. Most people learn English for practical rather than ideological reasons. As decolonization proceeded throughout the British Empire in the 1950s and 1960s, former colonies often did not reject English but rather continued to use it as independent countries setting their own language policies; such are the USA and Australia.

As the place where English first evolved, the British Isles, and particularly England, are home to the most variegated pattern of dialects. In Ireland, various forms of English have been spoken since the Norman invasions of the 11th century. In County Wexford, the area surrounding Dublin, two highly conservative dialects known as “Forth and Bargy” and “Fingallian” developed as offshoots from Early Middle English, and were spoken until the 19th century. Modern Hiberno-English however has its roots in English colonization in the 17th century. Today Irish English is divided into Ulster English, a dialect with strong influence from Scots, and southern Hiberno-English.

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English Proverb: “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.”

Meaning: You must begin something if you hope to finish it; something that takes a long time to finish begins with one step.


ProMosaik Trans Istanbul offers the following language combinations from and into English:


Italian – English


French – English


German – English


Chechen – English


Chinese – English


Croatian – English


Czech – English


Danish – English


Dari – English


Dutch – English


Estonian -. English





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